KOKAND CITY – THE EAST FAIRYTALE
Emirate of Bukhara
The Kokand Kingdom was located in the territory of Bukhara Emirate. According to the legend, Biya's descendants governed Fergana until its centre was moved to Ahsy. Younger brother of the the ruler of Rishtan had inherited the lands. The confrontation between the brothers had led to the civil war, which resulted in distruction of Rishton city where both brothers died in the fight. Thereafter Shahrukh took the throne and combined north-western and southern provinces of Fergana Valley declaring the unified state.
Shahrukh gave the order to find a suitable place to build a mound and an urda. Soon after that four small villages were buiil between the two sais, they formed the basis for the city of Kokand, the capital of the Kokand Khanate.
The Khanate of Kokand
Sons of Shahrukh continued the construction of the city. Favorable geographical location had contributed to the rapid growth. The state grew gradually allying to itself the new lands.
Kokand was surrounded by the 18-metres wall with twelve gates. The ditches were dug around the walls which were filled with water.
The two bridges made of bricks could bring you to the city. One of them was used for trading where one could see the benches and the stalls.
Every year Kokand has expanded its territory developing day by day. The territory of the city was 6 times bigger than Khiva. One-storey houses with clay borders were stood in the streets. During the development of the Kokand Khanate the city itself was the religious centre of the Fergana region at that time having more than three hundred mosques.
It was one of the largest trade and handicraft centers of Asia in the 19th century. After the construction of railways Samarkand-Andizhan, Kokand got access to the railways of Namangan, Andizhan and Jalalabad.
Kokand inherited Russian culture due to the influence of Russia in Central Asia
Opening of the first kindergarten was held in 1918. More than 150 people visited it. In "hungry" years shelters and boarding schools were built there too.
In the second half of the 20th century clinics and major hospitals were built. More than 300 doctors and about a thousand of other medical personnel worked there.
Later the city's network of hospitals grew considerably. Health authorities have spent a great deal of work to promote and provide medical assistance to the population.
The Influence of Russia
The town was captured by Russian troops in 1876 where Khanate was abolished and Kokand became the administrative centre of the county of Kokand in the Fergana region. After the union with Russia the khan’s Palace was turned into a Citadel. Later Kokand became the largest capitalist Center of Turkestan.
The basmaches of Èrgaša attacked Kokand fortress in February 1918. They pushed the ranks of the Red Guard and blocked it in the fortress. The invaders were defeated only 2 years after. During the selection process of national administrative-territorial units, Kokand became a part of the Uzbek SSR within the Soviet Union.
The Soviets drew immediate attention to the problem of educational institutions. Theatre troupes of actors were created with the initiative of Hamza Hakim Niazi and M. Mirakilova. Authorities had tried to eliminate the bourgeois publications and raised the rating of Soviet press.
Education played a key link in the cultural development of the city. Soviet State created a unified labor school. Despite the difficulties of the recovery period, Kokand city built 14 schools and 2 children's home.
Scientists from Kokand had also contributed drastically to the development of science. Academics, correspondent members, honored scientists, doctors and professors were among them.
Hamza Hakimzade Niyazi – a founder of Uzbek literature, Abdullah Qahhor- an outstanding writer of Uzbekistan, the master of short stories, author of novels about Socialist construction. Sobir Abdullah is the author of songs and poems, a prominent poet, creator of dramatic works. They all come from Kokand.
The universities of culture managed Kokand and used to hold massive events, holidays, youth evenings and many others.
Cinema became the most popular leisure activity for the residents of Kokand and densely strengthened in the country, for that reason a number of major cinemas such as "Uzbekistan", "Bahor" and "Spring" were in constant operation.
The Kokand Regional Museum was located in the former Palace of Hudoyar Khan . It stored a large number of copies and reproductions therefore became the biggest source of Soviet culture.
Major tourist sights:
Khudoyar Khan Palace
The palace complex built by an architect M. Ubaydullo, perfectly preserved till our times. Not only local residents but the population of Chust, Namangan, Kanibadam took part in the construction work.
The foundations of the Palace was raised by 3 metres above ground level so the central gate road was built in the form of the ramp where at the foot the cannons used to be placed. A carved stone fence stands around the Palace. There were courtyards and over a hundred rooms decorated with carvings and ornamental painting. The richest décor can be seen in the throne room, a Treasury is placed nearby followed by an armory.
This is the main mosque of the city. It was erected during the reign of Umarkhan. Looking at the mosque it appears to be as an avian closed in three sides. 98 wooden colons hold the aivan, which is popularly called as "stone" ones, due to its durability. There is a mosque at the entrance of the Minaret with plain walls of burnt bricks. Its height is 22 meters and there is a main decoration - 6-arches lamp under the dome. People could hear pray calls five times a day from the top of it.
Dahman-Yi Shakhan ( Kings’ tomb)
The burial place of Narbutabija and his descendants. Construction was completed in the early 19th century. After the demise of the Kokand Khan his wife ordered to improve the necropolis territory and to build a domed room along with a mosque and a special burial chamber (dahma).
It is the greatest madrassah in Kokand. Construction of the grounds began in the 18th century and ended in the late 18th century, at a time when the Kokand Khan defeated the Bukhara ruler and imprisoned many people. The architect Muhammad Salih Usto Kasim, who unwillingly had to participate in the construction of the building was among them.
Interesting fact - Narbuta-Bey madrassah is completely missing its decor. This creates an impression of austerity and severity of the construction.
Madrassah is still functioning up to now.
Coordinates: 40°31′43″ N 70°56′33″E
First Reference: X century
Previous Names: Kala-I-Rakhim biy, Eski-Kurgan, Hvokin, Kanguy, Kangha, Hovakand, Hukand
Official Language: Uzbek
Population: 233 500 people (2014)
Nationalities: Uzbeks, Russians, Tatars, Koreans
Time Zone: UTC+5
Area Code: 8 373